X Ray Fluorescence Wikipedia

X-ray fluorescence - Wikipedia.

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is the emission of characteristic "secondary" (or fluorescent) X-rays from a material that has been excited by being bombarded with high-energy X-rays or gamma rays.The phenomenon is widely used for elemental analysis and chemical analysis, particularly in the investigation of metals, glass, ceramics and building materials, and for research in ....

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X-ray - Wikipedia.

An X-ray, or, much less commonly, X-radiation, is a penetrating form of high-energy electromagnetic radiation.Most X-rays have a wavelength ranging from 10 picometers to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (30 x 10 15 Hz to 30 x 10 18 Hz) and energies in the range 145 eV to 124 keV.X-ray wavelengths are ....

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X-ray microscope - Wikipedia.

An X-ray microscope uses electromagnetic radiation in the soft X-ray band to produce magnified images of objects. Since X-rays penetrate most objects, there is no need to specially prepare them for X-ray microscopy observations. Unlike visible light, X-rays do not reflect or refract easily and are invisible to the human eye.Therefore, an X-ray microscope exposes film or uses a ....

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Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy - Wikipedia.

Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, EDX, EDXS or XEDS), sometimes called energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA or EDAX) or energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA), is an analytical technique used for the elemental analysis or chemical characterization of a sample. It relies on an interaction of some source of X-ray excitation and a sample.Its characterization ....

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Gamma ray - Wikipedia.

A gamma ray, also known as gamma radiation (symbol ? or ), is a penetrating form of electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.It consists of the shortest wavelength electromagnetic waves, typically shorter than those of X-rays.With frequencies above 30 exahertz (30 x 10 18 Hz), it imparts the highest photon energy. ....

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X-ray astronomy satellite - Wikipedia.

The first USA satellite which detected cosmic X-rays was the third Orbiting Solar Observatory, or OSO-3, launched on March 8, 1967.It was intended primarily to observe the Sun, which it did very well during its 2-year lifetime, but it also detected a flaring episode from the source Sco X-1 and measured the diffuse cosmic X-ray background.; The fourth successful Orbiting Solar ....

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X-ray optics - Wikipedia.

X-ray optics is the branch of optics that manipulates X-rays instead of visible light.It deals with focusing and other ways of manipulating the X-ray beams for research techniques such as X-ray crystallography, X-ray fluorescence, small-angle X-ray scattering, X-ray microscopy, X-ray phase-contrast imaging, X-ray astronomy etc. . Since X-rays and visible light are both ....

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X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy - Wikipedia.

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is a surface-sensitive quantitative spectroscopic technique based on the photoelectric effect that can identify the elements that exist within a material (elemental composition) or are covering its surface, as well as their chemical state, and the overall electronic structure and density of the electronic states in the material..

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Ray tracing (graphics) - Wikipedia.

In 3D computer graphics, ray tracing is a technique for modeling light transport for use in a wide variety of rendering algorithms for generating digital images.. On a spectrum of computational cost and visual fidelity, ray tracing-based rendering techniques, such as ray casting, recursive ray tracing, distribution ray tracing, photon mapping and path tracing, are generally slower and ....

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Electromagnetic radiation - Wikipedia.

Electrodynamics is the physics of electromagnetic radiation, and electromagnetism is the physical phenomenon associated with the theory of electrodynamics. Electric and magnetic fields obey the properties of superposition.Thus, a field due to any particular particle or time-varying electric or magnetic field contributes to the fields present in the same space due to other causes..

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X-ray spectroscopy - Wikipedia.

An X-ray spectrograph consists of a high voltage power supply (50 kV or 100 kV), a broad band X-ray tube, usually with a tungsten anode and a beryllium window, a specimen holder, an analyzing crystal, a goniometer, and an X-ray detector ....

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Rayon X — Wikipédia.

Les rayons X sont une forme de rayonnement electromagnetique a haute frequence constitue de photons dont l'energie varie d'une centaine d'eV (electron-volt), a plusieurs MeV [1].. Ce rayonnement a ete decouvert en 1895 par le physicien allemand Wilhelm Rontgen, qui a recu pour cela le premier prix Nobel de physique ; il lui donna le nom habituel de l'inconnue en ....

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Curiosity (rover) - Wikipedia.

Curiosity is a car-sized Mars rover designed to explore the Gale crater on Mars as part of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. Curiosity was launched from Cape Canaveral (CCAFS) on 26 November 2011, at 15:02:00 UTC and landed on Aeolis Palus inside Gale crater on Mars on 6 August 2012, 05:17:57 UTC. The Bradbury Landing site was less than 2.4 km (1.5 mi) from ....

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Electron paramagnetic resonance - Wikipedia.

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) or electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is a method for studying materials that have unpaired electrons.The basic concepts of EPR are analogous to those of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), but the spins excited are those of the electrons instead of the atomic nuclei.EPR spectroscopy is particularly useful for studying ....

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Standing wave - Wikipedia.

In physics, a standing wave, also known as a stationary wave, is a wave that oscillates in time but whose peak amplitude profile does not move in space. The peak amplitude of the wave oscillations at any point in space is constant with respect to time, and the oscillations at different points throughout the wave are in phase.The locations at which the absolute value of the ....

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Point spread function - Wikipedia.

The point spread function (PSF) describes the response of an imaging system to a point source or point object. A more general term for the PSF is a system's impulse response, the PSF being the impulse response of a focused optical system.The PSF in many contexts can be thought of as the extended blob in an image that represents a single point object..

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蛍光X線 - Wikipedia.

??X?(????X???X-ray Fluorescence?XRF)??????????????????????X??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????X????? ???????????????????? ....

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Tubo de rayos X - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre.

El tubo de rayos X consta de un catodo, cuya funcion es emitir electrones hacia el anodo.En los tubos modernos, el catodo es un filamento, habitualmente de wolframio, calentado por medio de una corriente electrica de unos pocos amperios.Una porcion de los electrones que circulan por el filamento se desprenden debido al efecto termoionico. [1] [2] El haz de electrones emitido por ....

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Liverpool Institute High School for Boys - Wikipedia.

Nobel Prize in Physics 1917 "for his discovery of the characteristic Rontgen radiation of the elements", Wheatstone Professor of Physics from 1909-13 at King's College London, and discovered most properties of X-ray scattering, fluorescence, polarisation, and transmission through matter. Sydney Silverman: c. 1911-1915 1895-1968.

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Charles Glover Barkla - Wikipedia.

Charles Glover Barkla FRS FRSE (7 June 1877 - 23 October 1944) was a British physicist, and the winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1917 for his work in X-ray spectroscopy and related areas in the study of X-rays (Roentgen rays)..

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Molecular models of DNA - Wikipedia.

From the very early stages of structural studies of DNA by X-ray diffraction and biochemical means, molecular models such as the Watson-Crick nucleic acid double helix model were successfully employed to solve the 'puzzle' of DNA structure, and also find how the latter relates to its key functions in living cells. The first high quality X-ray diffraction patterns of A-DNA were ....

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